Primary dysmenorrhea among the adolescents in Kwara state, Nigeria: The prevalence, knowledge and management
Background & Aim: Dysmenorrhea refers to the symptom of painful menstruation, which may be primary (occurring in the absence of pelvic pathology) or secondary (resulting from identifiable organic diseases). It is common gynaecological conditions that affect women of reproductive age group. The effect may be mild or severed on daily routine activities of women for one to three days of each menstrual cycle. It also has a significant effect on quality of life and personal health. This study aims to determine the burden and management of primary dysmenorrhea among the adolescent.
Materials and Methods: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among 400 randomly selected adolescent girls attending secondary schools. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain data which was analysis using (SPSS) version 16.0. Data presentation was done through the use of tables and charts. Appropriate statistics test such as chi-square was used to analysis the association between the variables. The level of significance was determined at p < 0.05.
Results: The mean age of respondents was 15.2 ± 0.14, and the prevalence of dysmenorrhea was found to be 287(71.8%). About 215(53.8%) had poor knowledge while others believed it to be a disease 10(2.5%), a curse from God 69 (17.2%) and 47(11.8%) do not know the meaning. Significant number 174(43.5%) of the participants exhibited negative attitude towards menstrual pain, as 122(42.5%) resorted to self-treatment and medication, only 97(33.8%) ever consulted healthcare worker. Paracetamol 54(32%) was the most used drug for self-treatment while others include Feldene 33 (19.3, Diclofenac 27(15.8) and Gelucee 25(14.6), About 103(61.7%) of subjects do not know the side effects of the drugs they used.
Conclusions: The burden of primary dysmenorrhea was high, the knowledge and attitude exhibited was poor and most of the adolescent girls used a different kind of drugs whose side effects are not known. The need for in school awareness creation on the causes and it is management was emphasized.
Ju H, Jones M, Mishra G. The prevalence and risk factors of dysmenorrhea. Epidemiologic reviews. 2013;36(1):104-13.
Latthe P, Latthe M, Say L, Gülmezoglu M, Khan KS. WHO systematic review of prevalence of chronic pelvic pain: a neglected reproductive health morbidity. BMC Public Health. 2006;6(1):177.
Al-Jefout M, Seham A-F, Jameel H, Randa A-Q, Luscombe G. Dysmenorrhea: prevalence and impact on quality of life among young adult jordanian females. Journal of pediatric and adolescent gynecology. 2015;28(3):173-85.
Chia C, Lai J, Cheung P, Kwong L, Lau F, Leung K, et al. Dysmenorrhoea among Hong Kong university students: prevalence, impact, and management. Hong Kong Med J. 2013;19(3):222-8.
Baghianimoghadam MH, Mohamadloo A, Falahzadeh H, Mirzaei Alavijeh M. A survey about the prevalence of dysmenorrhea in female students of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Their Knowledge, and Practice toward it. Journal of Community Health Research. 2012;1(2):93-8.
Wijesiri HSMSK, Suresh TS. Knowledge and attitudes towards dysmenorrhea among adolescent girls in an urban school in S ri L anka. Nursing & health sciences. 2013;15(1):58-64.
Ogunfowokan AA, Babatunde OA. Management of primary dysmenorrhea by school adolescents in ILE-IFE, Nigeria. The Journal of School Nursing. 2010;26(2):131-6.
Poureslami M, Osati-Ashtiani F. Assessing knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of adolescent girls in suburban districts of Tehran about dysmenorrhea and menstrual hygiene. Journal of International Women's Studies. 2002;3(2):51-61.
Agarwal AK, Agarwal A. A study of dysmenorrhea during menstruation in adolescent girls. Indian journal of community medicine: official publication of Indian Association of Preventive & Social Medicine. 2010;35(1):159.
UNFPA. The state of the world population, 2003. Making one billion counts: investing in adolescents’ health right. New York. UNFPA, 2006.
Bamgbose O. Revitalizing the Nigerian adolescents. A consideration of rights and attendant responsibilities In lA Nwazuoke, Y Bamgbose & Moronkola, OA (ed) Contemporary issues and researches on adolescents. 2002:15-35.
Bansal R, Mehra M. Adolescent girls: An emerging priority. Indian Journal of public health. 1998;42(1):1-2.
Chigbu B, Aluka C, Onwere S, Kamanu C, Okoro O, Aharauka C. Factors influencing the prevalence of primary dysmenorrhoea amongst Abia State university medical students, South Eastern Nigeria. Journal of Medical Investigation and Practice. 2012;8:10-3.
Johnson J. Level of knowledge among adolescent girls regarding effective treatment for dysmenorrhea. Journal of Adolescent Health Care. 1988;9(5):398-402.
Owonikoko K, Okunlola M, Ogunbode O, Enabor O, Oluwasola T, Arowojolu A. Menstrual Health of In-School Adolescents in Ibadan: Knowledge, Attitudes and Consequences. Nigerian Medical Practitioner. 2009;55(5):80-3.
Titilayo A, Agunbiade O, Banjo O, Lawani A. Menstrual discomfort and its influence on daily academic activities and psychosocial relationship among undergraduate female students in Nigeria. Tanzania journal of health research. 2009;11(4).
Abioye-Kuteyi E. Menstrual knowledge and practices amongst secondary school girls in lle lfe, Nigeria. The journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health. 2000;120(1):23-6.
Busari A. Menstrual knowledge and health care behavior among adolescent girls in rural Nigeria. International Journal of Applied. 2012;2(4).
Okoro RN, Malgwi H, Okoro GO. Evaluation of factors that increase the severity of dysmenorrhoea among university female students in maiduguri, north eastern nigeria. Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice. 2013;11(4):7.
Honour society of Nursing. Why does heat help relieve cramping from dysmenorrhea? http://www.sharecare.com/health/dysmenorrhea-treatment/heat-relieve-cramping-from-dysmenorrhea Accessed on 05/05/18
Physician committee for responsible medicine; using food against menstrual pain. http://www.pcrm.org/health/health-topics/using-foods-against-menstrual-pain. Accessed on 2/06/18
Rachel Nall. What to Eat for Dysmenorrhea & Menorrhagia. http://www.livestrong.com/article/471234-what-to-eat-for-dysmenorrhea-menorrhagia/ Accessed on 5/06/18
Shahr-Jerdy S, Hosseini RS, Gh ME. Effects of stretching exercises on primary dysmenorrhea in adolescent girls. Biomedical Human Kinetics. 2012;4:127-32.
Nwankwo TO, Aniebue UU, Aniebue PN. Menstrual disorders in adolescent school girls in Enugu, Nigeria. Journal of pediatric and adolescent gynecology. 2010;23(6):358-63.
Al-Kindi R, Al-Bulushi A. Prevalence and impact of dysmenorrhoea among Omani high school students. Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal. 2011;11(4):485.
Adeyemi A, Adekanle D. Management of dysmenorrhoea among medical students. Int j Gynecol obstet. 2007;7(1):39-43.
Mahvash N, Eidy A, Mehdi K, Zahra MT, Mani M, Shahla H. The effect of physical activity on primary dysmenorrhea of female university students. World Applied Sciences Journal. 2012;17(10):1246-52.