Moral intelligence in nursing: An evolutionary concept analysis
Background & Aim: Moral intelligence is a foundation and cornerstone of ethics in nursing. However, it is a vague concept which needs to develop. So, this study aimed to analyze the concept of moral intelligence in nursing to help its development and apply it in the context.
Methods & Materials: Rodgers's evolutionary concept analysis method was used. Databases of Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed/Medline, Scopus, CINAHL, and IranMedex were searched from 2001 to 2020 with moral, ethics, intelligence, and nursing keywords. After considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria and removing irrelevant and duplicate articles, 46 texts were reviewed. The method of analysis was inductive content analysis.
Results: The attributes of moral intelligence were identified as considering "individual-social value", "the integrity of feeling, thinking, and action", and "semantic purposefulness". The antecedents included "prepared person", "purposeful selection and upbringing", and "supportive context", and the consequences were "personal and professional development of the nurse", "facilitating holistic care", and "organizational promotion". Based on the attributes of the concept, moral intelligence was defined as: "The cognitive and value-oriented capability of a nurse in managing the problem and conflict resolution process through self-sacrifice and conscious involvement into intra-and-interpersonal relationships to achieve desirable moral and spiritual goals during comprehensive care of the client."
Conclusion: In ethical challenges, moral intelligence may function as a cognitive ability by considering individual-social values. It uses a purposeful problem-solving process that is purposeful, seeks meaning, and guides nurses to improve the quality of health services.
2. Khosravani M, Khosravani M, Borhani F, Mohsenpour M. The relationship between moral intelligence and organizational commitment of nurses. Clinical Ethics. 2020; 15(3):126-31.
3. Black BP. Professional nursing: concepts and challenges. Eight ed: Elsevier; 2017.
4. Habibzadeh H, Ahmadi F, Vanaki Z. Ethics in professional performance of Iranian nurses Medical Ethics and History of Medicine 2010;3(5):26-36.
5. Bezanjani KN, Tavakoli HM, Salajeghe S, Sheikhi A. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of" Nurses' Moral Intelligence Scale" in Kerman University of Medical Sciences Hospitals. 2019;8(5):9-17.
6. Yousefi P, Heshmati H. Moral intelligence and its position in nursing profession. Development Strategies in Medical Education. 2015;2(2):65-73.
7. Tanner C, Christen M. Moral intelligence–A framework for understanding moral competences. Empirically informed ethics: Morality between facts and norms: Springer; 2014;119-36.
8. Clarken RH. Considering moral intelligence as part of a holistic education. Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association; Denver 2010. p. 9.
9. Golmohammadian M, Behrozi N, Yaseminejad P. Moral intelligence, its nature and essentiality. Medical Ethics Journal. 2015;9(33):121-42.
10. Bahrami MA, Asami M, Fatehpanah A, Dehghani Tafti A, Ahmadi Tehrani G. Moral intelligence status of the faculty members and staff of the Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences of Yazd. Iranian Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine. 2012;5(6):81-95.
11. Mohammadi S, Nakhaei N, Borhani F, Roshanzadeh M. Moral intelligence in nursing: a cross-sectional study in East of Iran. Iranian Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine. 2013;6(5):57-66.
12. Khosravani M, Khosravani M, Rafiei F, Mohsenpour M. Moral intelligence and its dimensions in nurses working in hospitals in Arak city. Medical Ethics Journal. 2017;11(41):37-44.
13. Gastmans C, Schotsmans P, Dierckx de Casterle B. Nursing considered as moral practice: A philosophical-ethical interpretation of nursing. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal. 1998;8(1):43-69.
14. Lützén K, Cronqvist A, Magnusson A, Andersson L. Moral stress: synthesis of a concept. Nursing Ethics. 2003;10(3):312-22.
15. Sadeghi A, Adeli Z, Moghim BA, Moghim BA. Relationship between nurses' moral intelligence and patients' satisfaction from nursing care. 2015; 4(3): 65-75.
16. Mahmoudirad G, Khoshbakht H, Sharifzadeh G, Izadpanah A. Relationship between moral intelligence and psychological safety among emergency and intensive care units nurses. Health, Spirituality and Medical Ethics. 2020;7(1):2-8.
17. Khajavi Z, Vaezzadeh N, Mousavinasab SN, Azimi Lolaty H. Relationship between Ethical Intelligence and Professional Behavior in Nurses. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. 2020;30(185):86-95.
18. Saleh K. Moral Intelligence and its Role in Formulating Children Characters. MECSJ. 2018; 7: 301-313.
19. Kruger T. Moral Intelligence: The construct and key correlates.PhD in leadership in performance and change thesis. University of Johannesburg; 2012.
20. Rodgers BL, Knafl KA. Concept development in nursing: Foundations, techniques, and applications: WB Saunders Co; 2000.
21. Tofthagen R, Fagerstrøm LM. Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis–a valid method for developing knowledge in nursing science. Scandinavian journal of caring sciences. 2010; 24:21-31.
22. Smith EE, Nolen-Hoeksema S, Fredrickson BL, Loftus GR, Bem DJ, Maren S. Atkinson & Hilgard's introduction to psychology: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning Belmont, CA; 2003.
23. Shahandeh A, Abdoljabbari M, Ziaodin Olyanasab S, Rahmani R. The relationship between moral intelligence and demographic features of Payame Noor University students of Khoy and Mahabad with special emphasis on Quranic and psychological teachings. Journal of Research on Religion & Health. 2019;5(3):72-83.
24. Lennick D, Kiel F. Moral intelligence 2.0: Enhancing business performance and leadership success in turbulent times: Pearson Prentice Hall; 2011.
25. Farhadinejad M, Khani F. Study of the Components of the Ethical Intelligence in the Light of Imam Ali (AS) Thoughts in Nahj al-Balagha. Quarterly of Journal of Nahjolbalagha. 2019; 6(24): 51-70.
26. Narvaez D. The emotional foundations of high moral intelligence. New directions for child and adolescent development. 2010;2010(129):77-94.
27. Oztürk Hl, Saylıgil O, Yıldız Z. New concept in clinical care: proposal of a moral intelligence scale. Acta Bioethica. 2019;25(2):265-81.
28. Frezza E, Frezza G, Frezza E. Ethics necessary in health care a review. Biom Biostat Int J. 2018;7(4):317-20.
29. Al-Abbasi G. Ethical intelligence and its relation to the mutual social trust of students. Journal of Tikrit University for humanities. Journal of Tikrit University for Humanities. 2019; 4(14): 164-78.
30. Bayattork R, Alikhah A, Alitaneh F, Mostafavian Z, Farajpour A. Moral Intelligence and Its Relative Demographic Factors in Medical and Nursing Students Studying at Islamic Azad University of Mashhad. Iranian Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine. 2018;11(1):353-64.
31. Clarken RH. School of Education Northern Michigan University.
32. Yoshioka E, Kaneko S. Concept Analysis of Ethical Competence of Nursing Students and Nurses. Open Journal of Nursing. 2019;9(11):1173.
33. Basso-Musso L. Nursing and the resolution of ethical dilemmas. Investigación y educación en enfermería. 2012;30(2):260-8.
34. Asgari Tarazoj A, Ali Mohammadzadeh K, Hejazi S. Relationship between Moral Intelligence and Anger among Nurses in Emergency Units of Hospitals Affiliated to Kashan University of Medical Sciences. Journal of Health and Care. 2018;19(4):262-71.
35. Saied Y, Afaghi E, Tabanejad Z, Najafloo M. The relationship between moral intelligence and demographic characteristics of nurses in the Intensive Care Units. Journal of Military Caring Science. 2018; 4(14): 281-7.
36. Kulju K, Stolt M, Suhonen R, Leino-Kilpi H. Ethical competence: a concept analysis. Nursing ethics. 2016;23(4):401-12.
37. Majidi SA, Kouchakzadeh S, Safarmohammadi H, Leyli EK. Assessment of Hospital Nurses' Moral Intelligence: A Cross-Sectional Study in Guilan Province, North of Iran. Shiraz E-Medical Journal. 2018;19(10): e62299.
38. Milliken A, Grace P. Nurse ethical awareness: Understanding the nature of everyday practice. Nursing Ethics. 2017;24(5):517-24.
39. Golabi F, Aghdam MBA, Gargari RB, Rafiee M. Study of The Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Tendency to Democratic Values (Case Study of Orumieh). World Journal of Environmental Biosciences. 2017; 6: 40-50.
|Issue||Vol 8 No 4 (2021): Autumn|
|moral; intelligence; nursing; concept; analysis|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|