Evaluating the effect of fennel soft capsules on the quality of life and its different aspects in menopausal women: a randomized clinical trial
Background & Aim: Menopause is one of the natural phases of women’s life. At this phase, due to the large fluctuations in hormones, undesirable physical, mental and sexual symptoms would occur that have negative effects on the quality of life of women. Due to the side effects of hormonal therapy, many women would prefer complementary medicine and especially herbal medicine. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fennel on the quality of life in menopausal women.
Methods & Materials: This randomized triple-blind clinical trial was conducted on 90 menopausal women aged 45-60 years in Tehran. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups of fennel and placebo. The participants in the fennel group received oral soft capsules containing 100mg of fennel twice a day for 8 weeks and women in the placebo group received the same doze of placebo capsules containing 100mg of sunflower oil. The measured outcomes in the present study were the quality of life in menopausal women and its different aspects including vasomotor, socio-psychological, physical and sexual aspects which were measures using Menopause-Specific Quality of Life (MENQOL) questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS14.
Results: After 8 weeks of intervention, covariance analysis showed a significant difference in the score of quality of life and its four measured aspects between the two studied groups (for quality of life, vasomotor aspect, physical aspect and socio-psychological aspect: p < 0.001, for sexual aspect: p=0.013). In the fennel group, the score of quality of life and its aspects had a significant decrease after the intervention compared to before the intervention (p < 0.001). In the placebo group the scores of quality of life and socio-psychological, physical and sexual aspects had a significant decrease after the intervention (p < 0.05) but the score of vasomotor aspect was increased.
Conclusions: The present study showed that the fennel could decrease the symptoms of menopause with no serious side effects and consequently improve menopausal women’s quality of life.
Fritz MA, Speroff L. Clinical gynecology endocrinology and infertility,Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011. 673-857.
Rajaeefard A, Mohammad-Beigi A, Mohammad-Salehi N. Estimation of natural age of menopause in Iranian women: A meta-analysis study. Koomesh. 2011. 13(1): 1-7. [Persian]
Nahidi F, Karman N, Vallaei N, Fazli Z.Studying incidence of menopause and its effective factors in Tehran. Research in Medicine. 2010. 33(4): 258-265. [Persian]
Berek JS. Berek and Novak’s Gynecology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2012. 1320-1340.
Rahman SA, Zainudin SR, Mun VL. Assessment of menopausal symptoms modified Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) among middle age women in Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia. Asia Pacific Family Medicine. 2010. 9(1): 5.
Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals ,Menopausal complaints. Available at: http://pharma.bayer.com/en/treatment- care/womens-health/menopausal-complaints/ Accessed 2.12.2016.
Fallahzade, H. Dehghani Tafti, A. Dehghani Tafti, M. Hoseini, F. Hoseini, H.Factors Affecting Quality of Life after Menopause in Women ,Yazd, 2008. Journal of Shaheed Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences. 2011. 18(6): 552-558. [Persian]
Fayers PM, Machin D. Quality of Life - Assessment, Analysis & Interpretation.England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2000. 3-10.
Edelman JS. Menopause Matters: Your Guide to a Long and Healthy Life.United stat of America: Johns Hopkins Press Health Book; 2010. 41-53.
Posadzki P, Lee MS, Moon TW, Choi TY, Park TY, Ernst E. Prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use by menopausal women: a systematic review of surveys. Maturitas. 2013. 75(1): 34-43.
Fahimi F, Hrgovic I, El-Safadi S, Münstedt K. Complementary and alternative medicine in obstetrics: a survey from Iran. Archive of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2011.284(2): 361-4.
Fraser DM, Cooper MA. Myles textbook for midwives. England: Churchill Livingstone ;2009. 550-552.
Thomas AJ, Ismail R, Taylor-Swanson L, Cray L, Schnall JG, Mitchell ES, Woods NF. Effects of isoflavones and amino acid therapies for hot flashes and co-occurring symptoms during the menopausal transition and early postmenopause: a systematic review. Maturitas.2014. 78(4): 263-76.
Chen M-N, Lin C-c, Liu C-f. Efficacy of phytoestrogens for menopausal symptoms: a meta-analysis and systematic review.Climacteric. 2015. 18(12): 260-269.
Crowly,Catherin.101+Recipes from the herb lady. USA: Lulu; 2006. 85-96.
Badgujar SB, Patel VVBandivdekar AH. Foeniculum vulgare Mill: A Review of Its Botany, Phytochemistry,Pharmacology,Contemporary Application, and Toxicology. BioMed research iternational2014;2014:32
Parthasarathy VA, Chempakam B, Zachariah TJ. Chemistry of spices: Cabi; 2008..
Rahimi R, Ardekani MRS. Medicinal properties of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. in traditional Iranian medicine and modern phytotherapy. Chinese journal of integrative medicine. 2013;19(1):73-9.
Rose J. The aromatherapy book: applications and inhalations: North Atlantic Books; 2013.
Khazaei M, Montaseri A, Khazaei MR, Khanahmadi M. Study of Foeniculum vulgare effect on folliculogenesis in female mice. International journal of fertility & sterility. 2011;5(3):122.[Persian]
Turkyılmaz Z, Karabulut R, Sönmez K, Basaklar AC. A striking and frequent cause of premature thelarche in children: Foeniculum vulgare. Journal of pediatric surgery.2008;43(11):2109-11.
Malini T, Vanithakumari G, Megala N, Anusya S, Devi K, Elango V. Effect of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. seed extract on the genital organs of male and female rats. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 1985 Jan-Mar ; 29(1): 21-6.
Mohebbi-kian E, Mohammad-Alizadeh- Charandabi S, Bekhradi R. Efficacy of fennel and combined oral contraceptive on depot medroxyprogesterone acetate-induced amenorrhea: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Contraception.20 14;90(4):440-6.
Puleo M. Fennel and anise as estrogenic agents. Journal of Ethnopharmacology.1980 Dec; 2(4): 337-44.
Karabin M, Hudcova T, Jelinek L, Dostalek P. Biotransformations and biological activities of hop flavonoids. Biotechnology advances. 2015;33(6):1063-90.
Kumar S, Pandey AK. Chemistry and biological activities of flavonoids: an overview. The Scientific World Journal. 2013;2013.
Hilditch JR, Lewis J, Peter A, van Maris B, Ross A, Franssen E, et al. A menopause-specific quality of life questionnaire: development and psychometric properties. Maturitas. 1996 Jul;24(3):161-75
Yazdkhasti M, Keshavarz M, Merghati Khoei E, Hosseini AF. The effect of structured educational program by support group on menopause women’s quality of life. Iranian Journal of Medical Education. 2012;11(8):986-94.[Persian]
Miller HG, Li RM, editors. Measuring hot flashes: summary of a National Institutes of Health workshop. Mayo Clinic Proceedings;2004: Elsevier.
Chedraui P, San Miguel G, Schwager G. The effect of soy-derived isoflavones over hot flushes, menopausal symptoms and mood in climacteric women with increased body mass index. Gynecological endocrinology.2011;27(5):307-13.
Rostock M, Fischer J, Mumm A, Stammwitz U, Saller R, Bartsch HH. Blackcohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) in tamoxifen- treated breast cancer patients with climacteric complaints–a prospective observational study.Gynecological endocrinology. 2011;27(10):844-8.
Abdali K, Dowran P, Emamghoreishi M, Kasraian M, Tabatabaei H. Comparison of the effect of Foeniculum vulgare and St John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum) on the climacteric symptoms and sexual activity in menopausal woman. International Journal of Biological Research. 2016;7:148-154.
Basaria S, Wisniewski A, Dupree K, Bruno T, Song M, Yao F, et al. Effect of high- dose isoflavones on cognition, quality of life, androgens, and lipoprotein in post-menopausal women. Journal of endocrinological investigation. 2009;32(2):150-5.
Welty FK, Lee KS, Lew NS, Nasca M, Zhou J-R. The association between soy nut consumption and decreased menopausal symptoms. Journal of women's health.2007;16(3):361-9.
Nourozi M, Haghollahi F, Ramezanzadeh F, Hanachi P. Effect of Soy Milk Consumption on Quality of Life in Iranian Postmenopausal Women. Journal of family &reproductive health. 2015;9(2):93. [Persian]
Amato P, Young RL, Steinberg FM, Murray MJ, Lewis RD, Cramer MA, et al. Effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on menopausal quality of life. Menopause.2013;20(4):443-7
|Issue||Vol 4 No 2 (2017): Spring|
|fennel quality of life menopause|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|