Original Article

The influence of assertiveness training on self-esteem in female students of government high schools of Shiraz, Iran: A randomized controlled trial


Background & Aim: Adolescence is a sensitive period and psychological health during this period is of significant importance. Several studies suggest that self-esteem is a better predictor of success in studying than intelligence scores. Having assertiveness is considered important in having a high self-esteem. This study has been carried out in order to determine the influence of assertiveness training on self-esteem in high-school female students.
Methods & Materials: In this semi-experimental study, two female schools with 751 students were selected randomly from one of the four education regions of Shiraz, Iran. All of the students were evaluated using Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI) and Gambrill-Richey Assertion Inventory (GRAI). Students who had a test score of less than 25.4 were identified students with low selfesteem. Among whom, those who possessed low assertiveness means, their test scores were less than 44, were also characterized. Finally, 60 students were selected and allocated to intervention and control groups. No training was conducted for the control group, but the case group undertook assertiveness training for a period of 4 weeks, 2 times a week for 90 minutes. The Coopersmith selfesteem
and Gambrill-Richey Assertion Inventories were repeated after finishing 8 sessions. These tests were also repeated after 2 weeks to evaluate the rate of training continuity.
Results: T-test did not show a significant statistical difference between the mean and standard deviation of the scores of self-esteem and assertiveness before training among research samples between case and control groups (P = 0.30). The mean scores of self-esteem and assertiveness of the experimental group had significant differences immediately (34.1 and 92.8, respectively) and after 2 weeks of training (32.2 and 93, respectively) comparing with before training and with control group (respectively, P = 0.035, P = 0.045). Assertiveness of the control group did not show any significant statistical difference during the aforesaid three times (P > 0.05).
Conclusion: The obtained results indicate an increase in the rate of self-esteem and assertiveness after a period of assertiveness training among the case group. Actually, assertiveness training is significantly effective on the rate of assertiveness and self-esteem of students. In addition, results show that the influence of assertiveness training does not last for a short  duration but its effect has remained as such after 2 weeks of training.

Iran Census Center. Statistical center of Iran [Online]. [cited 2011 Jun 12]; Available from: URL: http://www.payvand.com/news/11/nov/1172 .html. [In Persian].

Want J, Kleitman S. Imposter phenomenon and self-handicapping: Links with parenting styles and self-confidence. Pers Individ Dif 2006; 40(5): 961-71.

Wood P. Reviews: Growing up: Adoles- cence. Doris Odlum. Wayland. Health Edu J 1980; 39(4): 130

Pillitteri A. Child health nursing: Care of the child and family. Philadelphia, PA: Lippin- cott Williams & Wilkins; 1999. p. 1173–87.

Kalantari M, Neshatdost H, Molavi H, Adamzadeh Z. The effect of group training on increasing self - esteem among the ado- lescent martyrs' daughters. Knowledge & Research in Applied Psychology 2006; 1(2): 19-25. [In Persian].

Biabangard E. Methods of self -esteem en- gancement in children and odolescents. Te- hran, Iran: Educators and Parents Associa- tion; 1994. [In Persian].

Dubois DL, Tevendale HD. Self-esteem in childhood and adolescence: Vaccine or epi- phenomenon? Applied and Preventive Psy- chology 1999; 8(2): 103-17.

Gulshen A. The effect of an assertiveness training on the assertiveness and self- es- teem level of 5th grade children [Thesis]. Ankara, Turkey: Middle East Technical University; 2003.

Shimizu T, Kubota S, Mishima N, Nagata S. Relationship between self-esteem and asser- tiveness training among Japanese hospital nurses. J Occup Health 2004; 46(4): 296-8.

Hashemi F. Effects of self expression train- ing on guidance school female students' happiness in Rey city [Thesis]. Tehran, Iran: Training Science Department, Allameh Ta- batabaei University; 2007. [In Persian].

Nota L, Soresi S. An assertiveness training program for indecisive students attending an Italian University. The Career Development Quarterly 2003; 51(4): 322-34.

World Health Organization. World report on knowledge for better health. Geneva, Swit- zerland: World Health Organization; 2010.

Ashouri A, Torkman Malayeri M, Fadae Z. The effectiveness of assertive training group therapy in decreasing agression and improv- ing academic achievement in high school students. Iran J Psychiatry Clin Psychol 2008; 14(4): 389-93. [In Persian].

Sepah Mansur M. The effect of life skills training on progressive motivation, self res- pecting and social adaptation. Thought and Behavior in Clinical Psychology 2007; 2(6): 85-99. [In Persian].

Hashemi F. Effects of self expression train- ing on guidance school female students' happiness in Rey city [MSc Thesis]. Tehran, Iran: Training Science Department, Allameh Tabatabaei University; 2007. [In Persian].

Haghigi J, Musavi M, Mehrabizadeh Ho- narmand M, Bashlideh K. Assessment of life skills training on mental health and self- esteem of first year female high school stu- dents. Psychology & Educational Science 2006; 13(1): 61-78. [In Persian].

Bandeira M, Quaglia MAC, Bachetti LS, Ferreira TL, Ferreira TL. Assertive behavior and its relation to anxiety, locus of control and self esteem in undergraduate students. Estud Psicol 2005; 22(2): 111-21.

Taylor J, Reitz W. The three faces of self- es- teem. London,Uk: University of Western On- tario, Department of Psychology. Research Bulletin 80; 1968.

Taghavilarijani T, Sharifi Neyestanak N, Ag- hagani M, Mehran A. Relationship between assertiveness and anxiety in nursing and mid- wifery students. Hayat 2010; 15(2): 61-72. [In Persian].

Sahebalzamani M, Norouzinia R, Aliloo L, Rashidi A. Effect of self expression training on promoting female high school students self- esteem and firmness. Urmia Med J 2010; 21(1): 45-53. [In Persian].

Lin YR, Shiah IS, Chang YC, Lai TJ, Wang KY, Chou KR. Evaluation of an assertive- ness training program on nursing and medi- cal students' assertiveness, self-esteem, and interpersonal communication satisfaction. Nurse Educ Today 2004; 24(8): 656-65.

Gullotta TP, Bloom M. Encyclopedia of pri- mary prevention and health promotion. New York, NY: Springer; 2003.

IssueVol 1 No 1 (2014): Winter QRcode
SectionOriginal Article(s)
assertiveness self-esteem student girls

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Tavakoli P, Setoodeh G, Dashtbozorgi B, Komili-Sani H, Pakseresht S. The influence of assertiveness training on self-esteem in female students of government high schools of Shiraz, Iran: A randomized controlled trial. NPT. 2015;1(1):17-23.