The effect of the components of King's spiritual intelligence group training on stigma in patients with cancer
Background & Aim: cancer stigma is one of the Psycho-social consequences of a cancer diagnosis. It seems that spiritual intelligence training can reduce cancer stigma by enhancing spiritual intelligence. Therefore, the purpose of the present research was to determine the effect of the components of King's spiritual intelligence group training on stigma in patients with cancer.
Methods & Materials: This randomized controlled clinical trial was carried out in Omid Oncology Hospital of Mashhad, Iran in 2018-19. The statistical population of the study included 54 patients with cancer who were then randomly divided into an intervention group (23 individuals) and a control group (27 individuals). The patients in the intervention group received King's spiritual intelligence group training (2008) for ten (90-minute) sessions, while the patients in the control group received routine care. The data collection instrument was Cancer Stigma Scale (patient version). The data were analyzed by SPSS-22 software using independent t-test, Man Whitney, paired t-test, and Wilcoxon statistical test.
Results: The findings showed that there is no statistically significant difference between the intervention and control groups in terms of stigma total mean score for the pre-intervention phase (p>0.05). However, in terms of stigma total mean score changes between the post and pre-intervention phases, there was a significant difference between the scores of the intervention and the control group (p<0.001).
Conclusion: Spiritual intelligence training is effective in reducing stigma among patients with cancer.
2. Cai Z, Liu Q. Understanding the Global Cancer Statistics 2018: implications for cancer control. Science China Life Sciences. 2019 Aug 26:1-4.
3. Zendehdel K. Cancer statistics in IR Iran in 2018. Basic & Clinical Cancer Research. 2019;11(1):1-4.
4. Costa DS, Mercieca‐Bebber R, Rutherford C, Gabb L, King MT. The impact of cancer on psychological and social outcomes. Australian Psychologist. 2016;51(2):89-99.
5. Maule M, Merletti F. Cancer Transition and Priorities for Cancer Control. Lancet Oncol. 2012;13(8):745-6.
6. Tang P-L, Mayer DK, Chou F-H, Hsiao K-Y. The Experience of Cancer Stigma in Taiwan: A Qualitative Study of Female Cancer Patients. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing. 2015;30:204-9.
7. Robb K, Simon A, Miles A, Wardle J. Public perceptions of cancer: a qualitative study of the balance of positive and negative beliefs. BMJ Open. 2014;4(7).
8. Shiri FH, Mohtashami J, Nasiri M, Manoochehri H, Rohani C. Stigma and Related Factors in Iranian People with Cancer. Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP. 2018;19(8):2285.
9. Mohabbat-bahar S, Bigdeli I, Mashhadi A, Moradi-Joo M. Investigation of Stigma Phenomenon in Cancer: A Grounded Theory Study. Iran J Cancer Prev. 2017;10(2).
10. Yilmaz M, Dissiz G, Usluoglu AK, Iriz S, Demir F, Alacacioglu A. Cancer-Related Stigma and Depression in Cancer Patients in A Middle-Income Country. Asia Pac J Oncol Nurs. 2020;7(1):95-102.
11. Grodensky CA, Golin CE, Jones C, Mamo M, Dennis AC, Abernethy MG, et al. “I Should Know Better”: The Roles of Relationships, Spirituality, Disclosure, Stigma, and Shame for Older Women Living with HIV Seeking Support in the South. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. 2015;26(1):12-23.
12. Karadeniz A. Examination of the Characteristics of Spiritual Intelligence of Turkish Education Students in Terms of Different Variables. International Online Journal of Educational Sciences. 2017;9(2):340-7.
13. Hanefar SB, Sa’ari CZ, Siraj S. A Synthesis of Spiritual Intelligence Themes from Islamic and Western Philosophical Perspectives. Journal of religion and health. 2016;55(6):2069-85.
14. King DB. Rethinking claims of spiritual intelligence: A definition, model, and measure (Unpublished master's thesis(Peterborough, Ontario, Canada Trent University; 2008.
15. Mahasneh A, Shammout N, Alkhazaleh Z, Al-Alwan A, Abu-Eita J. The relationship between spiritual intelligence and personality traits among Jordanian university students. Psychol Res Behav Manag. 2015;8(1):89-97.
16. Vaughan F. What is spiritual intelligence? Journal of humanistic psychology. 2002;42(2):16-33.
17. Noor A, Bashir S, Earnshaw VA. Bullying, internalized hepatitis (Hepatitis C virus) stigma, and self-esteem: Does spirituality curtail the relationship in the workplace. Journal of health psychology. 2016;21(9):1860-9.
18. Porter KE, Brennan-Ing M, Burr JA, Dugan E, Karpiak SE. Stigma and Psychological Well-being Among Older Adults With HIV: The Impact of Spirituality and Integrative Health Approaches. The Gerontologist. 2017;57(2):219-28.
19. Hutson SP, Darlington CK, Hall JM, Heidel RE, Gaskins S. Stigma and Spiritual Well-being among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Southern Appalachia. Issues in mental health nursing. 2018;39(6):482-9.
20. Yılmaz M, Dişsiz G, Demir F, Irız S, Alacacioglu A. Reliability and validity study of a tool to measure cancer stigma: Patient version. Asia-Pacific journal of oncology nursing. 2017;4(2):155.
21. Moazedyan P, Bagheri M. The spiritual intelligence training to family, affective, social and Physical adjustments in breast cancer patients. Biannual Journal of Applied Counseling. 2016;6(1):101-89.
22. Salajegheh S, Raghibi M. The Effect of Combined Therapy of Spiritual-Cognitive Group Therapy on Death Anxiety in Patients with Cance. Journal of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences. 2013;22(2):1130-9.
23. Afrooz R, Rahmani A, Zamanzadeh V, al a. The nature of hope among Iranian cancer patients. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014;15:9307-12.
24. Exline J, Park C, Smyth J, Carey M. Anger toward God: Social-cognitive predictors, prevalence, and links with adjustment to bereavement and cancer. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2011;100:129-48.
25. Winkelman W, Lauderdale K, Balboni M, Phelps A, Peteet J, SD SB, et al. The relationship of spiritual concerns to the quality of life of advanced cancer patients: Preliminary findings. J Palliat Med. 2011;14:1022–8.
26. LeBaron TV, FAANP A, Cooke A, Resmini J, Garinther A, Chow V, et al. Clergy Views on a Good Versus a Poor Death: Ministry to the Terminally Ill. Journal of Palliatative Medicine. 2015;18(12):1000-7.
27. Rodrigues MG, Pautex S, Shaha M. Revie⊕: the influence of a life review intervention including a positive, patient-centered approach towards enhancing the personal dignity of patients with advanced cancer—a study protocol for a feasibility study using a mixed method investigation. Pilot and feasibility studies. 2016 Dec 1;2(1):63.
28. Pargament K, Smith B, Koenig H, Perez L. Patterns of positive and negative religious coping with major life stressors. J Sci Study Relig 1998;37:710-24.
29. Mahmoudirad G, Bagherian F. Effects of spiritual intelligence training on nurses' job stress. Quarterly Journal of Nursing Management. 2015;4(1):69-74.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.