Vol 5 No 4 (2018): Autumn


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    In this editorial I would like to share with you some of the challenges which, in my view, we need to reflect on and perhaps what can be done to strengthen our research and moving forward. The challenges I would like to address concern the kind of research questions we raise and in particular the implicit assumptions that lie behind those questions. A further challenge, in my opinion, is how we regard knowledge and knowledge building in relation to research, i.e. how we understand the process of producing evidence based knowledge, addressing discovery, evaluation and implementation. The third challenge is related to the first and is connected with our closeness to practice and, perhaps even more, how we can integrate research in practice, which is related to how we position ourselves as researchers.  I am fully aware that there are many barriers and hurdles to overcome but that should not stop us striving to enable the next generation of nurse researchers to go even further than their predecessors.

Original Article(s)

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    Background & Aim: Psychiatric wards are stressful environments. Resilience can help psychiatric nurses cope with their occupational stress. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship of mental health with resilience among psychiatric nurses.

    Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-correlational study was conducted in 2017 on a sample of sixty nurses purposively recruited from all wards of Qods psychiatric hospital, Sanandaj, Iran. Study data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, the 28-item General Health Questionnaire, and the 25-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. The data were analyzed via the SPSS software v. 16.0 through conducting the independent-sample t test, the one-way analysis of variance, and the multiple linear regression analysis. The level of significance was set at less than 0.05.

    Results: In total, sixty psychiatric nurses (34 males and 26 females) with a mean age of 33.23±5.45 participated in this study. The mean scores of their mental health and resilience were 57.35±11.12 and 63.9±14.05, respectively. Resilience had significant relationships with age (0.025), marital status (P = 0.013), and work shift (P = 0.005). Moreover, among the subscales of mental health, only the mean score of the anxiety and insomnia subscale had significant relationship with resilience, so that each one point increase in the mean score of this subscale was associated with a 1.029-point increase in the mean score of resilience (P = 0.036).

    Conclusion: Psychiatric nurses’ resilience can be promoted through managing their stress and promoting their mental health 


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    Background &Aim: Cerebral angiography is a diagnostic procedure for cerebral disorders, particularly the disorders of cerebral blood vessels. However, as an invasive procedure, it can cause patients anxiety and physiological instability. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of multimedia education on anxiety and physiological status among patients with cerebral angiography.
    Methods & Materials: This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted from October 2017 to January 2018 in the angiography unit of a university hospital in Tehran, Iran. Participants were 88 candidates for cerebral angiography who were randomly allocated either to an intervention (n = 44) or a control (n= 44) group. Patients in the intervention group were provided with at least thirty-minute multimedia education consisted of video-based education, verbal education, written materials (an educational booklet), and question and answer. Data on participants’ personal characteristics were collected before the intervention, while their state anxiety was assessed before multimedia education and after cerebral angiography via Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory. Moreover, participants’ physiological parameters were measured and documented in a data sheet before and every two hours after angiography up to their discharge from the angiography unit. The independent-sample t, Chi-square, and McNemar’s tests and the Generalized Estimation Equation were used for data analysis.
    Results: After the intervention, 95.5% of patients in the intervention group and 86.4% in the control group had low level of anxiety; however, the between-group difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Moreover, anxiety level changed significantly neither in the intervention (P > 0.05) nor in the control (P > 0.05) group. In addition, after adjusting the effects of participants’ age, there were no significant between-group differences respecting the means of systolic blood pressure, the means of body temperature, peripheral oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate. However, the means of diastolic blood pressure and heart rate in the intervention group were significantly lower than the control group, irrespective of the effects of participants’ age.
    Conclusion: Multimedia education has no significant effects on state anxiety but has significant effects on diastolic blood pressure and heart rate among patients with cerebral angiography.

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    Background & Aim: There is a high incidence of work-related musculoskeletal injuries in health professionals, namely nurses and nursing assistants, especially associated with the handling and transfer of dependent patients. The present study intends to evaluate the risks of injuries of the health professionals through the observation of the handling of dependent patients.
    Materials & Methods: A descriptive and correlational study was performed using the observation of the care provided by nurses and nursing assistants. This study was developed in a hospital of the City of Gondomar-Portugal, data collection was carried out between January and March 2018. 149 Professionals were selected by convenience. The data collected were analysed using IBM SPSS® Statistics version 24.0.
    Results: The sample consisted of 149 participants, mostly female. Concerning the assessment of the burden associated with the handling of dependent patients, it was considered excessive by 74.5% of the professionals. Regarding the application of the Graça Risk Assessment Scale (2008), only 7% of the activities were considered low risk.Risk behaviours associated with inadequate space during the procedure, equipment not properly positioned, almost non-use of mobility aids, and failure to use the patient's collaboration to reduce the effort associated with the procedure were observed.
    Conclusion: The knowledge obtained through this study will allow the implementation of strategies to reduce the likelihood of pain and musculoskeletal injury related to work.

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    Background & Aim: Dysmenorrhea refers to the symptom of painful menstruation, which may be primary (occurring in the absence of pelvic pathology) or secondary (resulting from identifiable organic diseases). It is common gynaecological conditions that affect women of reproductive age group. The effect may be mild or severed on daily routine activities of women for one to three days of each menstrual cycle. It also has a significant effect on quality of life and personal health. This study aims to determine the burden and management of primary dysmenorrhea among the adolescent.
    Materials and Methods: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among 400 randomly selected adolescent girls attending secondary schools. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain data which was analysis using (SPSS) version 16.0. Data presentation was done through the use of tables and charts. Appropriate statistics test such as chi-square was used to analysis the association between the variables. The level of significance was determined at p < 0.05.
    Results: The mean age of respondents was 15.2 ± 0.14, and the prevalence of dysmenorrhea was found to be 287(71.8%). About 215(53.8%) had poor knowledge while others believed it to be a disease 10(2.5%), a curse from God 69 (17.2%) and 47(11.8%) do not know the meaning. Significant number 174(43.5%) of the participants exhibited negative attitude towards menstrual pain, as 122(42.5%) resorted to self-treatment and medication, only 97(33.8%) ever consulted healthcare worker. Paracetamol 54(32%) was the most used drug for self-treatment while others include Feldene 33 (19.3, Diclofenac 27(15.8) and Gelucee 25(14.6), About 103(61.7%) of subjects do not know the side effects of the drugs they used.
    Conclusions: The burden of primary dysmenorrhea was high, the knowledge and attitude exhibited was poor and most of the adolescent girls used a different kind of drugs whose side effects are not known. The need for in school awareness creation on the causes and it is management was emphasized.  

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 105 | views: 420 | pages: 403-412

     Background & Aim: While health behaviour theories are often used to develop written material for health care interventions, descriptions of how to operationalise such theories are lacking in the literature. Paradoxically, it is precisely this information that is supposed to influence patient behaviour. Letters inviting patients to participate in cardiac rehabilitation are further examined here.
    Materials & Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore how concepts from the Theory of Planned Behaviour had been operationalised in invitation letters, focusing on the motivational potential of different passages.
    Results: Thirteen participants were interviewed and asked to comment on the invitation letters. Without having been informed about the Theory of Planned Behaviour, most commented on passages that were based on the theory. It seemed important to many participants that the content is more relatable and personal. Message framing and the use of the future tense in sentences meant to motivate patients to attend cardiac rehabilitation appeared to be important. Using simple language might be more effective than technical terms.
    Conclusion: When using health behaviour theories such as the Theory of Planned Behaviour to compose materials motivating patients to behave in certain ways, message framing and relatable content are approaches to operationalizing theoretical concepts.