Vol 6 No 1 (2019): Winter

Editorial(s)

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    Data collection is a centerpiece in qualitative research. The use of multiple sources in data collection can improve conceptual interest of a qualitative inquiry and make it interesting.  Online focus groups (OFGs) as a complementary choice to make the research project easier and engaging. Selection of the most appropriate method of data collection is essential for ensuring the trustworthiness.
    This commentary is noted to important issues involved in using OFG discussions for data collection in qualitative health research. In order to determine the suitability of data collection techniques, qualitative researchers are recommended for analysis the question, the research context, the preference of participants, technical issues, the advantages and disadvantages of each method, and provide authentic data to enrich their project by applying innovative approaches.

Review Article(s)

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    Breastfeeding is a general method of providing nutritional supplements to young infants and child by breast milk. Early initiation of breastfeeding is very important for the infants. Breastfeeding is the cheapest and simplest method of fulfilling the nutritional needs of infant. Poor infant feeding practices and its effects is an obstacle in desirable growth and development of the infant. Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is a method of providing only breast milk to infant up to 6 months age. There are lots of intrinsic and extrinsic factors which affect EBF.
    The prevalence of EBF is too low at global level. In the world, prevalence of EFB is 30-50% but it is 54.9% in India. The cultural, religious and geographic differences create wide range of EBF in India and it’s around 35.8-77.2%. The Exclusive breastfeeding is effective in decline the incidence of communicable and non-communicable diseases among infants which reduce the morbidity and mortality among infants.
    The prevalence of EBF is below the proposed level so there is a need of effective breastfeeding program in India. Special focus is needed in the area where prevalence of EBF is poor. National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4) revealed that there is a positive trend in India towards EBF. Social support and EBF program are needed to develop a positive attitude towards EBF and it will change the current scenario and reduce the disease burden among infants.

Original Article(s)

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    Background & Aim: More clarification of the concept of nursing helps to review policies, standards, codes of ethics, professional values and nursing roles. The purpose of this study was to analyze nursing concept using Rodgers evolutionary method.
    Materials & Methods: With employing a rigorous evolutionary concept analysis approach, the concept of nursing was examined. After an extensive search, about 6706 articles were found; 43 articles and 6 related books published in English from 1980 were reviewed vigorously. Then data about the nursing concept was analyzed using evolutionary concept analysis approach.
    Results: The definition of attributes, antecedents, as well as consequences of nursing was performed through concept analysis. Core attributes (the goal of nursing, nursing scope, dimensions, practice and interventions, roles, audience, and professional values) were studied. The antecedents of nursing include getting a degree and nursing qualification, standards, and ethical codes. In addition, it led to health promotion. Care was an interchangeable concept of nursing. Missed and individualized nursing care, advanced nursing practice, holism and health improvement were obtained as nursing related concepts.
    Conclusion: Recognition of main attributes boundaries and professional differences in health care context prevents perplexity in nursing and leads to professional development and self-confidence.

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    Background and Aim: Enteral nutrition standards noncompliance is one of the factors that threatens patient safety.  Auditing is an important part in quality improvement processes. The aim of this study was to determine enteral nutrition nursing care conformity rate with standards in the critical care units.
    Methods and Materials: In this descriptive study, 400 enteral feeding nursing care were assessed via time and event sampling methods. The tool was a researcher made check list in three fields: pre-feeding, feeding, and post feeding nursing care. Content validity and inter-rater coefficient reliability were calculated for checklist. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptive statistics.
    Results: The most conformity rate with standards was in feeding (86%), pre-feeding (3/8 %) and post feeding (2/3%) field, respectively. Determination of PH (100%) and accurate gastric residual volume (99.8%) in pre-feeding field, disconnection of the syringe from catheter after feeding, in feeding filed and accurate documentation of the care (99.3%) in post feeding field, were not implemented in the most of cases.
    Conclusion: Enteral nutrition nursing care is far from standards in the pre and post feeding fields. Lack of the clear clinical guidelines, shortage of nursing staff and equipment and inadequate training are relating factors.

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    Background and Aim: Promoting maternal mental health is achievable through prevention of psychological birth trauma (PBT). This study aimed to investigate experts’ opinion on best strategies in prevention of PBT among childbearing women.
    Methods and Materials: This Delphi, systematic interactive research was conducted in Tehran, from July to November 2017. Delphi technique and policy dialogue was used to prioritize pre-defined PBT prevention strategies which had been identified in our previous studies. 13 experts were included in the Delphi. After two rounds, panelists had come to consensus on strategies’ priorities; they rated each strategy. Priority of strategies was set based on scores. Strategies with total mean of ≥9 and interquartile range (IQR) of ≤2 were entered to the next stage. At the last stage of consensus, a 4-hours meeting was held with seven policy makers; four top strategies were selected by consensus of the all members.
    Results: From 38 initial strategies, nine with the mean of ≥9 were identified as the top ones. At the policy dialogue meeting, four strategies were selected: continuous support during childbirth, practical childbirth preparation classes, group prenatal care, and preparing individual birth plan in antenatal visit.
    Conclusion: According to the experts, top four strategies can be combined in an integrated program. All these services will be provided at Primary Health Care facilities. These strategies are suggested in supporting maternity care in Iran and other developing countries to promote maternal mental and physical health.

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    Background & Aim: Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is a common sexually transmitted infection with high mortality rate though its prevention is now possible through vaccination. The study determined the knowledge and acceptance of HPV Vaccine among Secondary School students in Queens Model secondary school Enugu
    Methods and Material: The study utilized a quantitative descriptive survey method. Sample size of 368 students was determined using the power analysis at 95% confidence interval and 5% error margin. Stratified sampling method including proportionate sampling was used to select respondents from different classes to ensure representativeness. Data was collected using questionnaire developed by the researchers with a reliability of 0.79 Cronbach alpha after pre-test and data was analyzed with the aid of SPSS version 20 using descriptive statistics of frequencies and percentages.
    Results: Only 51(13.86%) of the respondents have heard of HPV vaccine. Majority 97.3% were willing to receive a vaccine that can prevent cervical cancer and 98.1% respondents agreed to recommend a vaccine that can prevent cervical cancer for others for fear of death and concern for their safety.
    Conclusion: Health education on HPV vaccine should be made available to young girls to enable them take advantage of this service before the resumption of sexual activities.

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    Background and Aim: The use of chemotherapy for the treatment of breast cancer has experienced a rapid increase in recent years and this is expected to continue. The objectives of the study were to ascertain the patient-related factors, therapy-related factors, and health care system factors that influence non-adherence to chemotherapy among breast cancer survivors at University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu.
    Methods and Materials: The study design was a cross-sectional descriptive survey with a total population of 100 cancer survivors. The Breast cancer questionnaire was the instrument used for data collection.
    Results: The result of the study showed that financial constraint 61(61.0%) was the major patient-related factor that influences non-adherence to chemotherapy, Medication side effects (hair loss, loss of weight) 62(62.0%) and duration of treatment 50(50.0%) were the major therapy-related factors while unfavorable hour of clinic visit 40(40.0%) was the major health care related factor that influence non-adherence to chemotherapy.
    Conclusion: It was concluded that the federal government should re-implement the health care policy that allowed treatment free-of-charge at Nigerian government hospitals to those with malignancies and other chronic ailments to mitigate the burden of associated financial problems and encourage patients to seek orthodox medical care. Also, health education initiation on benefit of adhering to chemotherapy would be needed on the part of the nurses to foster the women intake of chemotherapy. Nurses caring for women who receive endocrine therapy for breast cancer should identify those who may be at greater risk for being non-adherent.